Cattell, R. B. (). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), /. Crystallized Intelligence: Examples & Definition . These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as ‘fluid Psychology has offered many theories about intelligence over the. Charles Spearman’s noted student Raymond Cattell expanded on Spearman’s theory of a unified g and explored the difference between two independent but.

Author: Mazuktilar Shajas
Country: Armenia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Education
Published (Last): 19 May 2008
Pages: 354
PDF File Size: 13.20 Mb
ePub File Size: 20.76 Mb
ISBN: 126-6-16230-631-2
Downloads: 84798
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Faesho

Some researchers question whether the results of training are long lasting and transferable, crystallizec when these techniques are used by healthy children and adults without cognitive deficiencies. Raymond Bernard Cattell Biography. As the level of difficulty increases, individuals increasingly demonstrate an ccrystallized of what constitutes a key difference or the “rule” for solving puzzles involving one to one comparisons, and on later items identifying common differences among a set of items.

A second study conducted at the University of Technology in Hangzhou, China, supports Jaeggi’s results independently.

Fluid intelligence involves both the dorsolateral prefrontal cortexthe anterior cingulate cortexand other systems related to attention and short-term memory. In the growing child, the various abilities mature at about the same rate; they are correlated, and the concept of a general level [of intelligence] is useful. Would you like to have a look at the carbon of my longer paper, or of the one read at A.

At the APA meeting, Cattell discussed his ideas on the differences between measuring intelligence in children and adults and how differences in intelligence quotients might depend on the nature of the tests given.

Cattell rewrote the new section of his paper to indicate ttheory Hebb had already developed a similar theory and to indicate how his own ideas differed from those of Hebb.

Fluid and crystallized intelligence – Wikipedia

Williams and Wilkins;37— I can understand perfectly that I must have intepligence to be very greedy, if you thought that I had not formulated the idea clearly before talking to you. Crystallized intelligence is possibly more amenable to change as it relies on specific, acquired knowledge. Cattell, October 11, 1. The effects of restricting early experience on the problem-solving capacity of dogs. Cattell,pp. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.


Matrix Reasoning also tests this ability as well as the ability to start with stated rules, premises, or conditions and to engage in one or more steps to reach a solution to a novel problem deducation. This was based on a paper in progress at the time, but published later Cattell,which provides a more complete analysis of the problems in measuring adult intelligence. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Cattell a gave a detailed critique of the Binet test and crystallkzed concerned that differences in scores on intelligence tests were due to differences in social status, special abilities distinct from intelligence, or other environmental factors. Naturally Hebb and I in catttell gained clarifications, but this would have happened if I had discussed the same matter with any other man of Hebb’s intelligence and liking for the subject.

The effects of early experience on problem solving at maturity [Abstract]. Not surprisingly, people with a high capacity of Gf tend to acquire more Gc knowledge and at faster rates. Individuals at the preschool level have to point to a shape that is different from others in a set. When learning new facts, someone’s fund of knowledge is expanded. These results led Hebb a to two conclusions.

As pointed out by Pintnerp. Cattell, September 30, 1. Carrollp. Hebb and Penfieldpp.

Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

They were also used to examine sex and racial differences in intelligence; to detect children of superior intelligence; and to study the inheritance of intelligence Pintner, Views Read Edit View history.


Propositional analogies and semantic decision tasks are also used to assess relational reasoning. In this paper, Cattell described 44 different intelligence tests and proceeded to critique these for their focus on verbal material, their cultural biases and poor reliability and validity. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

The essential point of fact, which led to my writing to you in the first place, is that I had publicly presented though not, in 15 min, with a discussion of all its implications an hypothesis which was identical except for wording with part of your hypothesis.

Your letters speak of theoyr clarifying my ideas in conversation with you, but I have not touched the MS since apart from meeting some criticisms of my clinical data, made by Dr Doll and Dr Heinz Werner, who received the MS last June. If you think my statements need further modifying in any way please do not hesitate to say so.

Working memory capacity is closely related to fluid intelligence, and has been proposed to account for individual differences in Gf. Crystallized intelligence is indicated by a person’s depth and breadth of general knowledge, vocabulary, and the ability to reason using words and numbers.

Crystallized ability consists of discriminatory habits long established in a particular field, originally through the operation of fluid ability, but not [sic] longer requiring insightful perception for their successful operation. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. Sixth, this proposal led Hebb to the hypothesis that intelligence has two components: From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: This is evidenced by the fact that brain injuries affect Gf more than Gc.

The Psychology of Aging: